Replicate Wolter-I X-ray mirrors



Publisher: National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Publisher: National Technical Information Service, distributor in [Washington, DC, Springfield, Va

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Edition Notes

Other titlesReplicate Wolter I X-ray mirrors.
StatementD.E. Engelhaupt ... [et al.].
SeriesNASA TM -- 111117., NASA technical memorandum -- 111117.
ContributionsEngelhaupt, D. E., United States. National Aeronautics and Space Administration.
The Physical Object
FormatMicroform
Pagination1 v.
ID Numbers
Open LibraryOL17060018M
OCLC/WorldCa34638465

X-ray telescopes are very different from optical telescopes, because with their high energies, X-ray photons will simply pass through a conventional mirror. To solve this problem, Con-X’s mirrors are cylindrically-shaped so that hard X-rays (~ 45 keV) are deflected . The direct replication of W/Si multilayers and the effect of separating layer thickness on the performance of the multilayer before and after replication are investigated systematically. Platinum separating layers with different layer thicknesses were first deposited onto different supersmooth mandrels and then W/Si multilayers with the similar structure were deposited onto these Pt-coated. Keywords: X-ray mirror, Wolter type I mirror, Soft X-ray microscope, Replication method. 1. Introduction Soft X-ray microscopes can be used to investigate hydrated specimens, particularly living cells, with a high resolution about several times better than that of visible-light microscopes. Some X-ray optics, such as zone plates, multilayer. The basic telescope design consists of a Wolter I design grazing incidence x-ray mirror, a twelve position broadband filter wheel, and a focal plane subassembly containing an intensified MCP/CCD camera with 5 arcsec pixels. Mirror The mirror design consists of a Wolter Type I grazing incidence mirror in a parabola-hyperbola configuration.

optics module is composed of compact lightweight Wolter-I X-ray optics suitable for CubeSat/SmallSat missions. MiXOleverages the on-going development of electroformed Ni-alloy replication techniques to make Wolter-I X-ray optics with large area-to-mass ratios. Schedule Substantial margin in the prescribed development cycle Science and. • TRL 4 (proposed): breadboard validation with Wolter-I mirrors!- Mount and align mirror pair to arcsec in a “flight-like” mount!- “flight-like” = survive launch loads and G-release!- Correct figure errors of mounted aligned mirror pair to arcsec HPD after accounting for test configuration errors! Fig. 2 Mold for Wolter-I type telescopes with a thermally The choice of mold material is also very important for the quality of the replication. The thermal ex-pansion of both materials should match well. A stress coatings for X-ray mirrors based on slumped thin glass substrates [4]. Requirements for the X-. Keonjinn 48 x 32 Inch LED Mirror Bathroom Makeup Mirror Anti-Fog Wall Mounted Lighted Mirror Large Vanity Mirror with Lights (Horizontal/Vertical) out of 5 stars $ $ 99 $ $

The thin foil X-ray mirror was invented to fulfill a particular observational objective. In the ’s, with the introduction into X-ray astronomy of high resolution imaging through the Wolter I mirrors on the Einstein Observatory, it became recognized that not all applications for which imaging is desired require high angular resolution. for the next generation of ultra-thin X-ray mirrors are also addressed. The optics for each telescope consist of 58 nested Wolter-I grazing-incidence mirrors, or Mirror Modules, chosen to maximise the effective collecting area within the volume allocated. This highly nested design calls for the manufacture of a large number of X-ray-quality. Inrad Optics Inc. - Northvale, NJ Specializes in crystalline materials, glass and metal optical components and electro-optical devices. Vertically integrated, products include BBO, KDP, LiNbO3 Pockels cells and Q-switch elements, beamsplitters, ZGP and UV crystals, large transmission flats and mirrors, assemblies, x-ray monochromators, diamond-turned aspheres, and nickel-plated beryllium mirrors.   A soft x‐ray lithograpy using multilayer mirrors for demagnifying optics and a reflecting mask has been designed and studied experimentally. In this system, a wavelength of 45– Å has been selected based on the optical characteristics, the exposed depth of the resist film, and the reflectivity of the multilayer mirror. To obtain a replication pattern resolution of μm, the numerical.

Replicate Wolter-I X-ray mirrors Download PDF EPUB FB2

Cylindrical (hyperbolic - parabolic Wolter I) mirrors have been electroformed from nickel over an electroless nickel-phosphorous (NiP) plated aluminum mandrel in support of the NASA AXAF-S x-ray. COVID Resources. Reliable information about the coronavirus (COVID) is available from the World Health Organization (current situation, international travel).Numerous and frequently-updated resource results are available from this ’s WebJunction has pulled together information and resources to assist library staff as they consider how to handle coronavirus.

Cylindrical (hyperbolic-parabolic Wolter I) mirrors have been electroformed from nickel over an electroless nickel-phosphorous (NiP) plated aluminum mandrel in support of the NASA AXAF-S x-ray spectrometer program. The electroless nickel was diamond turned and polished to achieve a surface finish of 10 angstroms rms or by: 1.

Cylindrical (hyperbolic - parabolic Wolter I) mirrors have been electroformed from nickel over an electroless nickel-phosphorous (NiP) plated aluminum mandrel in support of the NASA AXAF-S x-ray spectrometer program.

The electroless nickel was diamond turned and polished to achieve a surface finish of 10 angstroms rms or better. Gold was then plated on the nickel alloy after an Author: D.

Engelhaupt, R. Rood, S. Fawcett, C. Griffith, R. Khanijow. Replicate Wolter-I x-ray mirrors. By R. Khanijow, D. Engelhaupt, S. Fawcett, C.

Griffith and R. Rood. Abstract. Cylindrical (hyperbolic - parabolic Wolter I) mirrors have been electroformed from nickel over an electroless nickel-phosphorous (NiP) plated aluminum mandrel in support of the NASA AXAF-S x-ray spectrometer program. Development of Wolter I x-ray optics by diamond turning and electrochemical replication Steven C.

Fawcett* and Darell Engelhauptt *Optical Fabrication Branch, EB53, NASA, Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL, USA; and 1Center for Applied Optics, The University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL USA Demonstration x-ray optics have been produced by diamond turning and replication.

The Wolter-I focusing mirror consists of a parabolic mirror and a hyperbolic mirror aligned coaxially. Its focusing mechanism is shown in Fig. grazing incidence, when the focal point of the parabolic mirror coincides with the rear focal point of the hyperbolic mirror, the incident X-rays are reflected by the parabolic mirror and the hyperbolic mirror in sequence before being.

The most popular design for x-ray telescopes so far has been the Wolter-I optic, where nested shells of parabolic grazing incidence mirrors are followed by nested shells of hyperbolic grazing incidence mirrors.

Due to the small graze angles x-ray mirrors have to be very long along the optical axis, and their effective collecting area is only a. The prototype optic was developed as part of the Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility, Spectrographic project.

The initial part of the project was aimed at developing and testing the replication technique so that it could potentially be used for the production of the entire mirror array comprised of up to 50 individual mirror shells. The X-ray group at GSFC has pioneered the use of thin, lightweight, segmented X-ray mirrors.

Our efforts until recently have emphasized collecting area and low cost at the expense of angular resolution. Thus we have built mirrors with a conical approximation to the true paraboloid/hyperboloid (Wolter I) shape needed to form a perfect image.

Advanced optical systems for applications such as grazing incidence Wolter I x-ray mirror assemblies require extraordinary mirror surfaces in terms of fine finish and surface figure. The impeccable mirror surface is on the inside of the rotational mirror form. One practical method of producing devices with these requirements is to first fabricate an exterior surface for the optical device then.

We introduce a new Miniature lightweight Wolter-I focusing X-ray Optics (MiXO) using metal-ceramic hybrid X-ray mirrors based on electroformed nickel replication and plasma thermal spray processes. MiXO can enable compact, powerful imaging X-ray telescopes suitable for future planetary missions.

Abstract: Nested multilayer mirrors are commonly used in X-ray telescope structures to increase the collecting area. To balance the difficulty and cost of producing these mirrors, the classical Wolter-I structure has previously been replaced with a conical Wolter-I structure, but it can lead to significantly poorer angular resolution.

Among the onboard instruments there are four Wolter-I X-ray mirrors of their reflectors’ figure in conical approximation. Two of the four are soft X-ray mirrors¹, of which the energy range is. Following the success of Einstein, it is clear that telescopes of very large area (∼10 cm) with angular resolution (⪝20″) are needed for deep X-ray surveys and other observations.

After a discussion of these objectives, which form the basis of the NASA LAMAR mission, the design & performance of a five mirror telescope is described. The system was studied for possible flight on Spacelab.

Electroform replication of ultrasmooth mirrors for x-ray astronomy. Robert I. Altkorn *, Rudy H. Haidle, Jon C. Chang In this paper we describe the fabrication of replica Wolter I optics from gold-coated lacquer- polished mandrels and the effect of plating bath temperature on the surface quality of electroforms produced from lacquer.

Abstract. Following the siicces of Einstein, it is clear that telescopes of very large area (~ 10 4 cm 2) with angular resolution (⪝20″) are needed for deep X-ray surveys and other a discussion of these objectives, which form the basis of the NASA LAMAR mission, the design & performance of a five mirror telescope is described.

Development of x-ray mirrors for XFEL sub nm focusing system based on Wolter type III geometry Paper Author(s): Takato Inoue, Osaka Univ. (Japan); Jumpei Yamada, RIKEN SPring-8 Ctr. (Japan); Satoshi Matsuyama, Nami Nakamura, Osaka Univ.

(Japan); Taito Osaka, RIKEN SPring-8 Ctr. (Japan); Hirokatsu Yumoto, Takahisa Koyama, Haruhiko Ohashi, Japan Synchrotron Radiation. Replicate Wolter-I X-ray Mirrors D. Engelhaupt The University of Alabama in Huntsville R. Rood, S. Fawcett, C. Griffith and R. Khanijow NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Huntsville, AL ABSTRACT Cylindrical (hyperbolic - parabolic Wolter I) mirrors have been electroformed from nickel over an electroless nickel-phosphorous (NiP) plated.

form a reflector, resulting in conical approximation of the Wolter-I optical system. This method can be used to fabricate many lightweight reflectors by a simple process; however, the imaging Making mandrel Coating Mirror substrate molding Separation Fig.

3 Manufacturing process of replicated X-ray mirror. Table 1. A summary of the principal characteristics of Wolter-I X-ray mirror systems flown to date* * No-foil optics, which also use a conical approximation to Wolter-I optics, are included here because they provide resolutions above 1arcmin.

**Conical approximation to Wolter-I optics. Figure 2. A single XMM-Newton flight-model mirror. profile[19], widespread in X-ray astronomical mirrors.

To this end, the cylindrical shape is forced against the integration mould and the imparted Wolter-I shape is frozen by gluing stiffening ribs on the non-optical side, previously fixed to a still backplane or to another mirror of the stack[20]. After the separation from the mould, the glass.

The May flight of a HERO prototype produced the first hard-x-ray images of astronomical objects and demonstrated sub-arcminute angular resolution with six 3-m-focal-length mirror shells.

7 Since that time, we've refined our mirror fabrication techniques and a much larger payload that will eventually feature 6-m-focal-length mirrors is. CubeSat X-ray Telescope (CubeX): MiXO will enable compact and affordable, yet powerful X-ray telescopes on a variety of future planetary missions.

CubeSat X-ray Telescope (CubeX) is a standalone free-flyer concept for a planetary X-ray imaging telescope in a. The replication technology represents an important alternative to other methods of X-ray optics production.

We report on the past (first replicated X-ray mirror has been produced by our group just 30 years ago), present and future of replication of X-ray optics with emphasis on grazing incidence optics of various types and geometry. The X-Ray Telescope and Its Production Method The mirror assembly consists of a nested Wolter I configuration comprised of an inner and outer system.

The paraboloids, hyperboloids, and field stops for the inner system are mounted onto a central structure. cidence Wolter I x-ray mirror assemblies require extraordinary mirror surfaces in terms of fine finish and surface figure.

The such that actual x-ray mirror mandrels can be produced. The steps to form the x-ray replicate optic, may be released to leave a film of silica within the optical shell.

Advanced optical systems for applications such as grazing incidence Wolter I x-ray mirror assemblies require extraordinary mirror surfaces in ten-ns of fine surface finish and figure. The impeccable mirror surface is on the inside of the rotational mirror form.

The replicate optic is not better than the master or mandrel from which it is. ern X-ray astronomy missions utilize grazing-incidence optics with Wolter-I geometries which combines re-flection from a parabolic and a hyperbolic surface in a barrel shape mirror.

To increase the collecting area of these telescopes, several mirror shells of varying diam-eter can be nested one inside the other along the same optical axis. ASTRO-H is an astrophysics satellite dedicated for X-ray spectroscopic study non-dispersively and to carry out survey complementally, which will be borne out of US-Japanese collaborative effort.

Among the onboard instruments there are four conically approximated Wolter-I X-ray mirrors, among which two of them are soft X-ray mirrors1, of which the energy range is from a few.

multilayer-coated Wolter-I mirror shell manufactured by Nickel electroforming. The mirror shell is a demonstrator for the NHXM hard X-ray imaging telescope ( – 80 keV), with a predicted HEW (Half Energy Width) close to 20 arcsec. We show some reconstructed PSFs at monochromatic X-ray energies of 15 to 63 keV, and compare them with.To reduce the cost of mirror fabrication, Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has developed replication techniques, the machinery, and materials to replicate electro-formed nickel mirrors.

The process allows fabricating precisely shaped mandrels to be used and reused as masters for replicating high-quality mirrors.Thin foil mirrors were introduced as a means of achieving high throughput in an X-ray astronomical imaging system in applications for which high angular resolution was not necessary.

Since their introduction, their high filling factor, modest mass, relative ease of construction, and modest cost have led to their use in numerous X-ray observatories, including the Broad Band X-ray Telescope.